ISSN 0303-5212

RMJ is a general Medicine publication and accepts oorigial articles, editorials, case reports and commentaries. It aims to dessiminate medical knowldge to professional community.

 Aim and objectives of Rawal medical journal



To promote the science and art of medicine and the betterment of the public health.



1.         To publish original, important, well-documented, peer-reviewed clinical and laboratory articles on a diverse range of medical topics

2.         To provide physicians with continuing education in basic and clinical science to support informed clinical decisions.

3.         To enable physicians to remain informed in multiple areas of medicine, including developments infields other than their own.

4.         To improve public health internationally by elevating the quality of medical care, disease prevention, and research provided by an informed readership.

5.         To foster responsible and balanced debate on controversial issues that affect medicine and health care.

6.         To forecast important issues and trends in medicine and health care.

7.         To inform readers about non-clinical aspects of medicine and public health, including the political, philosophic, ethical, legal, environmental, economic, historical and cultural.

8.         To recognize that, in addition to these specific objectives, THE JOURNAL has a social responsibility to improve the total human condition and to promote the integrity of science.

9.         To report American Medical Association policy, as appropriate, while maintaining editorial independence, objectivity and responsibility.

10.       To achieve the highest level of ethical medical journalism and to produce a publication that is timely, credible, and enjoyable to read.


2023, Vol: 48, Issue: 4

RMJ. Year: 2023, Volume: 48

  1. Artificial intelligence in psychiatry: Present and Future
    Syed Azhar Ali
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 803-804
    » Abstract » PDF

  2. Original Research
  3. Clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetics switched to Insulin Degludec Aspart from conventional Premixed Insulin therapy
    Komal Mumtaz Malik, Kulsoom Farhat, Muhammad Asghar Khan, Bilal Ahmad, Shabana Ali, Mudassar Noor
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 805-808
    » Abstract » PDF

  4. Original Research
  5. Frequency and Presentation of Headaches in Patients Diagnosed with COVID-19
    Mujeeb ul Rehman, Zuhaib Ahmed, Ghulam Mujtaba, Aijaz Ali, Bharat Kumar Maheshwari, Sadaf Nasir
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 809-813
    » Abstract » PDF

  6. Original Research
  7. Comparison of cervical range of motion with and without episodic tension type headache among the university students of physical therapy
    Haris Bin Tariq, Ammar Hameed, Fatima Bashir, Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Waqar Afzal
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 814-816
    » Abstract » PDF

  8. Original Research
  9. Knowledge and Attitude of students about Varicella Infection in AL-Kindy College of Medicine, Baghdad, Iraq
    Mohammed Jalal Hussein, Ban Abdulhameed Majeed, Abbas Oweid Olewi, Hayder Al-Momen
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 817-821
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230502075400

  10. Original Research
  11. Diversity of E. faecalis isolated from different clinical specimens by using RAPD-PCR in Hilla Province, Iraq
    Shymaa A.G Al hussainy, Lamees A Abdul-Lateef
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 822-826
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230309083906

  12. Original Research
  13. Hypochondriacal traits, perceived social support and healthy life style as predictors of irritable bowel syndrome in adults
    Zobaria Butt, Sadia Niazi, Adnan Adil, Anam Yousaf, Saba Ghayas, Anam Khan
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 827-829
    » Abstract » PDF

  14. Original Research
  15. Does Vitamin D Deficiency affect severity of Rheumatoid Arthritis?
    Fahmina Ashfaq, Nauman Ismat Butt, Khalid Mahmood, Sabeen Aftab
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 830-834
    » Abstract » PDF

  16. Original Research
  17. Effect of an educational program to improve nursing staff knowledge toward preventing urinary tract infection associated with catheters at Kirkuk City, Iraq
    Ali Hussein Alwan, Abid Salih Kumait
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 835-838
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230604041646

  18. Original Research
  19. Efficacy of 40 mg vs. 80mg daily doses of febuxostat in treating hyperuricemia in chronic kidney disease
    Muhammad Sajid Mehmood, Wajahat Sultan Baig, Tehreem Aftab, Umar Kaleem, Muhammad Hammad, Shazia Siddiq
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 839-842
    » Abstract » PDF

  20. Original Research
  21. Correlation between health literacy and level of education in hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study
    Zahraa Abed Jassem, Ibrahim Alwan AI-Ashour
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 843-845
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230602053431

  22. Original Research
  23. Exploring factors behind skipping a healthy breakfast among primary school children in Kirkuk city, Iraq
    Alyaa Mohammad Abid, Nazar Ahmed Mahmood
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 846-849
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230524094600

  24. Original Research
  25. Nurses’ knowledge about electrocardiogram interpretation: A cross-sectional study
    Khadija Mohammed Jassim, Abdulkareem Salman Khudhair, Zainab Salman Dawood, Ali Malik Tiryag
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 850-852
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230722032424

  26. Original Research
  27. Quality of life among cancer patients receiving chemotherapy at oncology and hematology center in Kirkuk City, Iraq
    Moayad Majeed Samin, Younus Khdhur Baeez
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 853-856
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230606070654

  28. Original Research
  29. Prevalence of cigarette and shisha smoking among high school adolescents & its impact on Health
    Fahad Ali Mangrio, Shafqat Ali Mangrio, Musarat Fatima, Mahaveer Singh Sodho
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 857-859
    » Abstract » PDF

  30. Original Research
  31. Diagnostic accuracy of plain radiography for the detection of pelvic fractures keeping computed tomography as gold standard
    Attia Batool, Iqra Saeed, Ghulam Fatima, Muhammad Abid Hussain, Rana Muhammad Athar Azeem Shams, Shahid Manzoor
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 860-862
    » Abstract » PDF

  32. Original Research
  33. Fixation of unstable intertrochanteric fractures with proximal femoral nailing: Supine position with traction table versus lateral decubitus position
    Mohanad Husam Uldin Sadeq, Ghadeer Hikmat Majeed, Hayder Omran Hayat Ali, Mohammed Ali Al Bayati, Mohammed Shihab Aledanni, Sadiq Abaas Al-Mukhtar
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 863-867
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230520052559

  34. Original Research
  35. Efficacy of lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injections for lumbar spinal stenosis: A prospective study
    Mohammed Bagir Al-sharaa, Mohammed Shihab Aledanni
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 868-871
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230414025137

  36. Original Research
  37. Functional outcome of medial patello-femoral ligament reconstruction in recurrent patella dislocation using semitendinosus tendon auto-graft
    Naveed Ali Shair, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Abubakar, Rehan Sittar, Abdullah Tariq, Muhammad Hanif Mian
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 872-875
    » Abstract » PDF

  38. Original Research
  39. Outcome of PCL reconstruction with peroneus longus tendon graft: An experience from a tertiary care hospital of a developing country
    Naveed Ali Shair, Rehan Sittar, Muhammad Khalid, Abdullah Tariq, Muhammad Abubakar, Muhammad Hanif Mian
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 876-880
    » Abstract » PDF

  40. Original Research
  41. Effectiveness of a clinical pathway program on nurses` practices for the child with clubfoot at the Orthopedic units at Baghdad City, Iraq
    Raad Hassan Kshaish, Khalida A. Mansur
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 881-884
    » Abstract » PDF

  42. Original Research
  43. Frequency of deep vein thrombosis after primary hip arthroplasty in patients at a tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan
    Vikash Kumar, Saeed Ahmed A Shaikh, Muhammad Tahir, Nadeem Ahmed
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 885-888
    » Abstract » PDF

  44. Original Research
  45. Occurrence and pattern of clubfoot deformity in Khyber PakhtunKhua: Hospital based physical rehabilitation center perspective
    Bostan Muhammad, Anum Aftab, Muhammad Kamran, Ghulam Saqulain
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 889-893
    » Abstract » PDF

  46. Original Research
  47. Prevalence of frozen shoulder in type II Diabetic patients and its relation to age, gender and duration of diabetes
    Muhammad Hafeez, Fizza Khan, Shehla Manzoor, Mahnoor Mukhtar, Irfan Sattar
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 893-895
    » Abstract » PDF

  48. Original Research
  49. Frequency of fecal incontinence in patients with low fistula in-ano subjected to fistulectomy
    Muhib Ullah, Jamshed Khattak, Fahad Mahmood, Uzma Wahid, Iltaf Hussain
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 896-898
    » Abstract » PDF

  50. Original Research
  51. Comparison of fentanyl and ketamine in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy
    Zainub Ali, Ayesha Shahid
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 899-902
    » Abstract » PDF

  52. Original Research
  53. Hypertension in children aged 7-15 years with positive family history of hypertension
    Pawan Kumar, Rajesh, Shabeeta Bai, Ejaz ur Rehman, Asma Naz, Habibullah
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 903-905
    » Abstract » PDF

  54. Original Research
  55. Factors associated with hearing aid rejection among hearing impaired children
    Misbah Shahzadi, Ghulam Saqulain, Muhammad Naveed Babur, Nazia Mumtaz
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 906-910
    » Abstract » PDF

  56. Original Research
  57. Mothers’ knowledge regarding National Immunization Program in Al-Diwaniyah City, Iraq
    Wael Salim Lahmood Al-Naieli, Sajida Khamess Abdullah
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 911-913
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230722031720

  58. Original Research
  59. Knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers with children under five years of age about vaccination
    Iram Yasir, Ayesha Javaid, Mudassir Pervaiz, Hamza Chaudhry, Anas Channa, Umar Farooq
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 914-917
    » Abstract » PDF

  60. Original Research
  61. Prevalence and pattern of congenital anomalies in neonates and stillborns in MCH Center FGPC (PGMI), Islamabad, Pakistan
    Amina Mobeen, Kaneez Fatima, Shahzad Munir, Naveed Ashraf, Atika Minhas, Amna Gul
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 918-921
    » Abstract » PDF

  62. Original Research
  63. Comparison of mode of delivery in patients at term to the time of commencement of induction of labor
    Iffat Irshad, Seema Gul, Durreshahwar, Riffat Najeeb, Sania Naheed, Naila Tahir
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 922-925
    » Abstract » PDF

  64. Original Research
  65. Activated protein C resistance in women using second generation oral contraceptives
    Namra Mahmood
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 926-929
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20220902105133

  66. Original Research
  67. Evaluation of biochemical parameters in Iraqi women patients with preeclampsia
    Reem Ali Haddad
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 930-932
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230409073401

  68. Original Research
  69. Maternal and Prenatal factors associated with miscarriage among women attending Kirkuk City Hospitals, Iraq
    Faeza Fakhradeen Basas, Suhailah Mohammed Ali
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 933-935
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230517075422

  70. Original Research
  71. Orthodontic diagnostics in children with congenital cleft lip and palate with dentognathic deformities
    Valerii Filonenko, Oleksandr Kaniura, Nataliia Bidenko
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 936-939
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230517091426

  72. Original Research
  73. Morphological assessment of oral exfoliated cells in oral submucous fibrosis and healthy individuals
    Rida Rubab Ahmed, Ambreen Usmani, Daniyal Mehmood, Ayesha Mehwish, Mariya Azam Khattak, Maryam Faiz Qureshi
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 940-943
    » Abstract » PDF

  74. Original Research
  75. Frequency and measurements of torus palatinus and mandibularis in patients visiting Prosthodontics Department of Isra Dental College, Hyderabad, Pakistan
    Farzana Memon
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 944-947
    » Abstract » PDF

  76. Original Research
  77. Evaluation of microbial plaque on the intaglio surface of a heat cured acrylic maxillary removable complete denture
    Syeda Sameen Zehra Rizvi, Naveed Ahmed, Aamir Rafiq, Abdullah, Afia Khan, Tariq Rahim
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 948-951
    » Abstract » PDF

  78. Original Research
  79. A study on toothbrush storage, contamination, and disinfection awareness among Pakistani dental students
    Yousuf Moosa, Syed Azhar Matloob, Amir Akbar Shaikh, Ambreen Mahboob, Ambreena Siddique, Raja Muhammad Daniyal
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 952-956
    » Abstract » PDF

  80. Original Research
  81. Correlation of corneal endothelial cell density in low, moderate, and higher myopes
    Tahira Hafeez, Kiran Shakeel Alvi, Sobia Yousaf, Muhammad Arslan Ashraf, Sharmeen Shahid, Kabir Hussain
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 957-960
    » Abstract » PDF

  82. Original Research
  83. Body image, sexual relationship satisfaction and depression among married women after mastectomy
    Sana Fatima, Muhammad Nasar Iqbal, Shahyan Qamar, Fatima Javed
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 961-963
    » Abstract » PDF

  84. Original Research
  85. Predictors of mental health problems in university students
    Yousaf Jamal, Sayyeda Taskeen Zahra
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 964-967
    » Abstract » PDF

  86. Original Research
  87. Compassion satisfaction and stress in trainee clinical psychologists: A mediating role of self-care
    Shehar Bano, Fatima Naeem, Gulzar Ahmad
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 968-972
    » Abstract » PDF

  88. Original Research
  89. Prevalence of core muscles weakness in body builders
    Mahwish Bukhari, Maha Zaheer, Usman Riaz, Ameena Amjad, Sana Altaf
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 973-975
    » Abstract » PDF

  90. Original Research
  91. Perception of future health care professionals towards inclusion of patient safety topics in undergraduate medical curriculum
    Samreen Misbah, Zohaa Fatima, Menahil Fatima, Fawad Mashhadi, Ali Haider, Naveed Malhi
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 976-980
    » Abstract » PDF

  92. Original Research
  93. Challenges faced by surgical services during Covid-19 pandemic in Pakistan
    Tariq Zahid Khan, Sana Kazmi, Madiha Khan, Sana Mehfooz, Tehmina Junaid, Rajesh Kumar Vasandani
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 981-985
    » Abstract » PDF

  94. Original Research
  95. Outcome of severe acute malnutrition in less than six months old infants at Nutrition Stabilization Center, LUMHS, Jamshoro, Pakistan
    Salma Shaikh, Muhammad Nadeem Chohan, Imran Ahmed, Saleem Shaikh, Mushtaque Ali Shah
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 986-989
    » Abstract » PDF

  96. Original Research
  97. Analysis of depression, activity of daily of living and balance among elderly with knee osteoarthritis in Malang, Indonesia
    Sri Sunaringsih Ika Wardojo, Rakhmad Rosadi, Owen Nkoka, Sun Qianhui, Aqila Cintia, Prasasti Millenia Seputri
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 990-993
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230523054728

  98. Original Research
  99. Effect of exergames by using Xbox 360 Kinect on cognition of older adults with mild cognitive impairment
    Hafsah Arshad, Hafsah Gul Khattak, Kinza Anwar
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 994-998
    » Abstract » PDF

  100. Original Research
  101. Screening survey for the determination of associated factors and coping strategies in Post Stroke Depression
    Ambrin Kousar, Jamila Abdul Maroof, Fouzia Batool, Maria Khalid, Arshad Nawaz Malik
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 999-1002
    » Abstract » PDF

  102. Original Research
  103. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity and academic performance among medical students; A single center study from Saudi Arabia
    Mohammed Abdul Lateef Junaid, Rakan Nahedh H Almutairi, Turki Nasser Alqahtani, Mohammed Fahad M Alsalem, Mohammed Mubarak M Alrashidi, Sultan Mohammed B Alsaadoon
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1003-1008
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230227075331

  104. Original Research
  105. Perception of major stakeholders (teachers) regarding the modular system of medical education
    Khaliq Aman, Zafar Iqbal, Salma Ghaffar, Ejaz Latif, Nasim Ilyas, Malik Shah Zaman Latif
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1009-1012
    » Abstract » PDF

  106. Original Research
  107. Quiz as an effective tool to induce a paradigm shift and motivate students to study Pharmacology
    Nasir Ali Afsar, Muslim Abbas, Muhammad Yahya Peracha, Muhammad Ali Zubair, Muhammad Ali Sadiq, Rabeea Rizwan
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1013-1017
    » Abstract » PDF

  108. Original Research
  109. Undergraduate medical students' opinion on the histology teaching and learning methodology
    Ruqqia Shafi, Hina Zaid, Saima Sohail, Kiran Kamran
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1018-1022
    » Abstract » PDF

  110. Original Research
  111. Optimism, adaptive coping strategies and subjective well-being among medical students
    Tahreem Nasir, Amna Sajid, Nasreen Akhtar
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1023-1026
    » Abstract » PDF

  112. Original Research
  113. Factors related with teenager preference toward health workers in the promotion of drug abuse prevention in Bima, Indonesia
    Ade Wulandari, Nani Nurhaeni, Dewi Gayatri, Martiningsih Martiningsih
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1027-1030
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230802010805

  114. Original Research
  115. Student engagement and cultural competence in nursing students
    Nina Indriyawati, DYP Sugiharto, Martono, Muchsin
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1031-1034
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230521110716

  116. Original Research
  117. Impact of socio-demographic factors on the climate in medical organizations
    Kamal Jummah Ameen, Hassan Ali Hussein
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1035-1038
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230613082042

  118. Original Research
  119. Assessment of the use and awareness of health applications among the public in Najran City, Saudi Arabia: A cross sectional study
    Mugahed Ali Al-khadher
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1039-1044
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230914102028

  120. Original Research
  121. Depression among adolescents; an alarming situation: a cross-sectional study from Karachi, Pakistan
    Faryal Nawab, Nighat Nisar
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1045-1048
    » Abstract » PDF

  122. Original Research
  123. Evaluating hand hygiene by nurses' midwives to prevent and control infection in Al Najaf Ashraf City Hospitals, Iraq
    Hanan N. Mohamad, Salma K. Jihad
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1049-1052
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230602054203

  124. Original Research
  125. The influence of screen time to sleep quality and health of university students
    Amirah Zafar, Yasha Altaf, Saad Kamal Akhtar, Muhammad Aziz Subhani, Shakeela Rasheed, Aruj Hayee
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1053-1055
    » Abstract » PDF

  126. Original Research
  127. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidimic activities of ethanol seed extract of Cucmis melo var. flexuosus & Cucmis melo var. raticulatus
    Hafiza Tuseef Sayyar, Shireen Nazir, Mehtab Munir, Ayesha Khan, Mehar Fatima, Mehwish Mansoor
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1056-1060
    » Abstract » PDF

  128. Original Research
  129. Melatonin attenuates drug induced liver injury caused by combined effect of methotrexate and isoniazid
    Aamna Khokhar, Sadia Shaukat, Zunera Hakim, Aisha Qayyum, Saima Rafique, Abeera Sikandar
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1061-1064
    » Abstract » PDF

  130. Review Article
  131. Exploring transformative role of virtual reality technology in nursing education and patient care: A narrative review
    Omnia Abdalla Higazy, Amna Ahmed Ali, Esraa A Hakami, Amani Awad Elkarim Taha, Khadijah Ahmad Egaili, Hammad Ali Fadlalmola
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1065-1069
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230828092451

  132. Original Research
  133. Effectiveness of self-care intervention in hypertension patients: A Systematic Review
    Martiningsih, Enie Novieastari, Dewi Gayatri, Astuti Yuni Nursasi
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1070-1074
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230801092626

  134. Case Report
  135. A conservative surgical strategy for spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage: a rare case report
    Yong Wan Kim
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1075-1078
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230517121449

  136. Case Report
  137. Aberrant course of the subarcuate artery in a 19-year-old patient
    Hadia Wali, Azeem Aslam, Shayan Shahid Ansari, Savera Anwar
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1079-1080
    » Abstract » PDF

  138. Technical Note
  139. Acknowledgments
    Rawal Medical Journal
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1081-1082
    » Abstract » PDF

  140. Technical Note
  141. Author Index
    Rawal Medical Journal
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1083-1087
    » Abstract » PDF

  142. Technical Note
  143. Subject Index
    Rawal Medical Journal
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1088-1093
    » Abstract » PDF

  144. Technical Note
  145. Information for authors
    Rawal Medical Journal
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1094-1094
    » Abstract » PDF

  146. Technical Note
  147. Front Page
    Rawal Medical Journal
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 1-1
    » Abstract » PDF

  148. Technical Note
  149. Contents
    Rawal Medical Journal
    RMJ. 2023; 48(4): 0-0
    » Abstract » PDF