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Original Research 
RMJ. 2022; 47(2): 250-253


Association between demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations in patients with Covid-19

Tooba Masood, Saif Ullah Shaikh, Ambreen Kalam, Khushboo Soomro, Muhammad Faisal Fahim.

Abstract
Objective: To determine the association of clinical presentation of covid-19 in different age groups, gender and professions.
Methodology: This cross sectional study included 236 participants aged between 15-70 years who were positive for Covid-19 PCR test. Those who were reluctant to participate were excluded. We used a self-administered questionnaire comprising questions regarding demographic details (age, gender, socioeconomic status, marital status & profession), as well as clinical symptoms. The data were analysed using through SPSS version 20.
Results: Among 236 participants, 153(64.8%) were male and 83 (35.2%) were female with mean age of 35.68±13.7 years. Fever was significant in 126 (82.4%) males (p=0.005). Between genders, more males did not have abdominal discomfort which was also significant (p=0.034). Significant association was found with ventilated environment (p=0.044 and 0.000) with age and profession, respectively. Patients infected from family members were found significant with gender and profession at p-value of 0.039 and 0.000. Those infected at workplace were found significant with age and profession with p-value of 0.046 and 0.021.
Conclusion: Association of age with ventilated environment displayed positive relation, whereas those working in health care sector and those employed privately showed remarkable increase in infection cases.

Key words: Covid-19, demographic, transmission, complications.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Masood T, Shaikh SU, Kalam A, Soomro K, Fahim MF. Association between demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations in patients with Covid-19. RMJ. 2022; 47(2): 250-253.


Web Style

Masood T, Shaikh SU, Kalam A, Soomro K, Fahim MF. Association between demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations in patients with Covid-19. https://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=128031 [Access: May 20, 2022].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Masood T, Shaikh SU, Kalam A, Soomro K, Fahim MF. Association between demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations in patients with Covid-19. RMJ. 2022; 47(2): 250-253.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Masood T, Shaikh SU, Kalam A, Soomro K, Fahim MF. Association between demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations in patients with Covid-19. RMJ. (2022), [cited May 20, 2022]; 47(2): 250-253.



Harvard Style

Masood, T., Shaikh, . S. U., Kalam, . A., Soomro, . K. & Fahim, . M. F. (2022) Association between demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations in patients with Covid-19. RMJ, 47 (2), 250-253.



Turabian Style

Masood, Tooba, Saif Ullah Shaikh, Ambreen Kalam, Khushboo Soomro, and Muhammad Faisal Fahim. 2022. Association between demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations in patients with Covid-19. Rawal Medical Journal, 47 (2), 250-253.



Chicago Style

Masood, Tooba, Saif Ullah Shaikh, Ambreen Kalam, Khushboo Soomro, and Muhammad Faisal Fahim. "Association between demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations in patients with Covid-19." Rawal Medical Journal 47 (2022), 250-253.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Masood, Tooba, Saif Ullah Shaikh, Ambreen Kalam, Khushboo Soomro, and Muhammad Faisal Fahim. "Association between demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations in patients with Covid-19." Rawal Medical Journal 47.2 (2022), 250-253. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Masood, T., Shaikh, . S. U., Kalam, . A., Soomro, . K. & Fahim, . M. F. (2022) Association between demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations in patients with Covid-19. Rawal Medical Journal, 47 (2), 250-253.








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