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Original Research 
RMJ. 2022; 47(3): 536-539


Psychosocial disturbances in patients with diabetic macular edema

Hina Sultan, Ghulam Ishaq, Muhammad Mueen.

Abstract
Objective: To assess the psychosocial disturbances in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME).
Methodology: Type I and Type II DM patients with macular edema in both eyes with visual acuity lower than 6/6 were included in this study. Visual acuity test (Snellen Chart) was used. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was used to detect DME. Daily Living Activities Dependent on Vision Scale, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21and Three Items Loneliness Scale were used.
Results: Correlation analysis indicated that vision dependent tasks significantly negatively related to stress (r= -.76, p<0.01), anxiety (r= -.66, p<0.01), depression (r= -.53, p<0.01), self-esteem (r= -.77, p<0.01) and loneliness r= -.56, p<0.05. Stress, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem had high positive relationships with each other but weak associations were seen among participants in their experience of feeling lonely. Participants in late adulthood were more stressed out F(2,285)=13.1, p<0.05; anxious F(2,285)=6.2, p<0.05; depressed F(2,285)=9.4, p<0.05; and lonely F(2,285)=14.0, p<0.05 than those in early and middle adulthood. The averages of stress, anxiety and depression reached to clinical levels (stress=26-33; anxiety=15-19; severe depression=21-27) in late adulthood. Late adulthood group showed moderate levels of loneliness while it was of mild levels in other groups. However, participants in early adulthood had lower self-esteem than other age groups.
Conclusion: Diabetic macular edema results in serious disturbances to perform daily tasks and affects psycho-social well-being of patients severely.

Key words: Diabetic macular edema, visual dependence, depression, self-esteem, social loneliness.


 
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Pubmed Style

Sultan H, Ishaq G, Mueen M. Psychosocial disturbances in patients with diabetic macular edema. RMJ. 2022; 47(3): 536-539.


Web Style

Sultan H, Ishaq G, Mueen M. Psychosocial disturbances in patients with diabetic macular edema. https://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=119459 [Access: September 02, 2022].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Sultan H, Ishaq G, Mueen M. Psychosocial disturbances in patients with diabetic macular edema. RMJ. 2022; 47(3): 536-539.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Sultan H, Ishaq G, Mueen M. Psychosocial disturbances in patients with diabetic macular edema. RMJ. (2022), [cited September 02, 2022]; 47(3): 536-539.



Harvard Style

Sultan, H., Ishaq, . G. & Mueen, . M. (2022) Psychosocial disturbances in patients with diabetic macular edema. RMJ, 47 (3), 536-539.



Turabian Style

Sultan, Hina, Ghulam Ishaq, and Muhammad Mueen. 2022. Psychosocial disturbances in patients with diabetic macular edema. Rawal Medical Journal, 47 (3), 536-539.



Chicago Style

Sultan, Hina, Ghulam Ishaq, and Muhammad Mueen. "Psychosocial disturbances in patients with diabetic macular edema." Rawal Medical Journal 47 (2022), 536-539.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Sultan, Hina, Ghulam Ishaq, and Muhammad Mueen. "Psychosocial disturbances in patients with diabetic macular edema." Rawal Medical Journal 47.3 (2022), 536-539. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Sultan, H., Ishaq, . G. & Mueen, . M. (2022) Psychosocial disturbances in patients with diabetic macular edema. Rawal Medical Journal, 47 (3), 536-539.








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