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Original Research 
RMJ. 2022; 47(4): 960-963


Early and late amplification of hearing loss in children: Phonological development perspective

Naveeda Nazir, Ghulam Saqulain, Mehtab Khatoon.

Abstract
Objective: To examine the effects of early and late amplification on phonological development of children with moderate hearing impairment.
Methodology: This cross-sectional comparative study with purposive sampling was conducted at Army Special Education Academy and Sir Syed School & College, Rawalpindi from October, 2017 to April 2018. It included 100, 4-5 years old children of both genders using hearing aids with moderate hearing loss divided into early amplified & late amplified. Test for Articulation and Phonology in Urdu was used for data collection.
Results: Syllable structure process more frequently noted in late amplified compared to early amplified were Final Consonant Deletion (p=.005) and Initial Consonant Deletion (p=.826). Among substitution processes Fronting (p=0.013) persisted and was seen more commonly in the late amplified group. Also, harmony structure processes of Reduplication (p<0.001) and Assimilation (p<0.001) persisted and was seen more frequently in the late amplified group.
Conclusion: Phonological development in children with moderate HI at 4 to 5 years is better in earlier amplified group compared to late amplified group with phonological processes, which should stop at 3 years of age seen to occur quite frequently in late amplified group hence affecting intelligibility.

Key words: Amplification, hearing impairment, phonological processes, speech sound disorders.


 
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Pubmed Style

Nazir N, Saqulain G, Khatoon M. Early and late amplification of hearing loss in children: Phonological development perspective. RMJ. 2022; 47(4): 960-963.


Web Style

Nazir N, Saqulain G, Khatoon M. Early and late amplification of hearing loss in children: Phonological development perspective. https://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=74098 [Access: November 12, 2022].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Nazir N, Saqulain G, Khatoon M. Early and late amplification of hearing loss in children: Phonological development perspective. RMJ. 2022; 47(4): 960-963.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Nazir N, Saqulain G, Khatoon M. Early and late amplification of hearing loss in children: Phonological development perspective. RMJ. (2022), [cited November 12, 2022]; 47(4): 960-963.



Harvard Style

Nazir, N., Saqulain, . G. & Khatoon, . M. (2022) Early and late amplification of hearing loss in children: Phonological development perspective. RMJ, 47 (4), 960-963.



Turabian Style

Nazir, Naveeda, Ghulam Saqulain, and Mehtab Khatoon. 2022. Early and late amplification of hearing loss in children: Phonological development perspective. Rawal Medical Journal, 47 (4), 960-963.



Chicago Style

Nazir, Naveeda, Ghulam Saqulain, and Mehtab Khatoon. "Early and late amplification of hearing loss in children: Phonological development perspective." Rawal Medical Journal 47 (2022), 960-963.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Nazir, Naveeda, Ghulam Saqulain, and Mehtab Khatoon. "Early and late amplification of hearing loss in children: Phonological development perspective." Rawal Medical Journal 47.4 (2022), 960-963. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Nazir, N., Saqulain, . G. & Khatoon, . M. (2022) Early and late amplification of hearing loss in children: Phonological development perspective. Rawal Medical Journal, 47 (4), 960-963.








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