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Original Research 


Sleep quality, sleep efficiency and level of anxiety in lactating women

Bushra Ahmad, Maria Sohail, Hafiza Sana Ashraf, Aqsa Anjum, Ayesha Asjad, Marya Asghar.

Abstract
Objective: To determine the sleep quality, sleep efficiency and level of anxiety in lactating women.
Methodology: This multi-centered, cross-sectional study was conducted on 121 postpartum mothers. The data were collected from University of Lahore Teaching Hospital, Children Hospital Lahore and Social Security Hospital, Lahore. Non probability convenient sampling technique was used. Lactating mothers aged between 14 to 45 years within one year of postpartum, coming to OPDs of psychology departments in various hospitals were included in the study. Standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Beck Anxiety Inventory questionnaires, and a checklist containing demographic-fertility were used for data collection.
Results: The mean age of mothers was 28.47±3.815years (range 22-39). We found that 62.5% mothers were using both breast and bottle feed to feed their babies. About 20% breastfeed their babies while 62.5% used both breast and bottle feeding. No female was smoker but many had experienced passive smoking. There were 82.6% of mothers with moderate sleep difficulties whereas 52.1% of the mothers were with moderate level of anxiety.
Conclusion: Lactating women experience moderate level of anxiety. Have fairly good quality of subjective sleep, relatively better sleep efficiency and overall above average sleep quality within one year of postpartum.

Key words: Anxiety, lactation, postpartum, sleep efficiency, sleep quality.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Ahmad B, Sohail M, Ashraf HS, Anjum A, Asjad A, Asghar M. Sleep quality, sleep efficiency and level of anxiety in lactating women. RMJ. 2022; 47(1): 77-80.


Web Style

Ahmad B, Sohail M, Ashraf HS, Anjum A, Asjad A, Asghar M. Sleep quality, sleep efficiency and level of anxiety in lactating women. https://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=61138 [Access: April 05, 2022].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Ahmad B, Sohail M, Ashraf HS, Anjum A, Asjad A, Asghar M. Sleep quality, sleep efficiency and level of anxiety in lactating women. RMJ. 2022; 47(1): 77-80.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Ahmad B, Sohail M, Ashraf HS, Anjum A, Asjad A, Asghar M. Sleep quality, sleep efficiency and level of anxiety in lactating women. RMJ. (2022), [cited April 05, 2022]; 47(1): 77-80.



Harvard Style

Ahmad, B., Sohail, . M., Ashraf, . H. S., Anjum, . A., Asjad, . A. & Asghar, . M. (2022) Sleep quality, sleep efficiency and level of anxiety in lactating women. RMJ, 47 (1), 77-80.



Turabian Style

Ahmad, Bushra, Maria Sohail, Hafiza Sana Ashraf, Aqsa Anjum, Ayesha Asjad, and Marya Asghar. 2022. Sleep quality, sleep efficiency and level of anxiety in lactating women. Rawal Medical Journal, 47 (1), 77-80.



Chicago Style

Ahmad, Bushra, Maria Sohail, Hafiza Sana Ashraf, Aqsa Anjum, Ayesha Asjad, and Marya Asghar. "Sleep quality, sleep efficiency and level of anxiety in lactating women." Rawal Medical Journal 47 (2022), 77-80.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Ahmad, Bushra, Maria Sohail, Hafiza Sana Ashraf, Aqsa Anjum, Ayesha Asjad, and Marya Asghar. "Sleep quality, sleep efficiency and level of anxiety in lactating women." Rawal Medical Journal 47.1 (2022), 77-80. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Ahmad, B., Sohail, . M., Ashraf, . H. S., Anjum, . A., Asjad, . A. & Asghar, . M. (2022) Sleep quality, sleep efficiency and level of anxiety in lactating women. Rawal Medical Journal, 47 (1), 77-80.








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