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Original Research 
RMJ. 2022; 47(4): 974-977


Comparison of aerobic & Tai Chi exercise on cardiopulmonary endurance levels in smoker university students; A randomized controlled trial

Ibrahim Zafar, Ramsha Masood, Muhammad Junaid Akram, Sumaiyah Obaid Baig, Iqbal Tariq, Naveed Ahmad.

Abstract
Objective: To compare the two well-known techniques i.e. Aerobic and Tai Chi Exercise on cardiopulmonary endurance levels among the smoker.
Methodology: In this Randomized Controlled Trial, a total of 88 male university students aged between 18 to 27 years who were smokers, having mild-severe nicotine level, determined by the nicotine and cotinine urine analysis, were included. People with psychiatric disorders, neurological disorders, malignancies, cardiac diseases, musculoskeletal problems and pulmonary issues were excluded. They were randomly and equally divided into two groups (control and experimental) by toss a coin method. Post treatment assessment were noted using nicotine level test in urine, digital spirometry and shuttle run test for cardio-pulmonary assessment. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.
Results: One participant was dropped out from the experimental group. A non-significant improvement in Mean and median (IQ) was observed between the groups at post treatment, the post-training value of VO2 max, number of shuttles, shuttle distance, shuttle time, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume.
Conclusion: Aerobic exercises and Tai Chi technique both were effective in improving the cardio-respiratory fitness and health status of smokers.

Key words: Aerobic exercise, cardiac diseases, cardiopulmonary, endurance level, Tai-Chi technique.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Zafar I, Masood R, Akram MJ, Baig SO, Tariq I, Ahmad N. Comparison of aerobic & Tai Chi exercise on cardiopulmonary endurance levels in smoker university students; A randomized controlled trial. RMJ. 2022; 47(4): 974-977.


Web Style

Zafar I, Masood R, Akram MJ, Baig SO, Tariq I, Ahmad N. Comparison of aerobic & Tai Chi exercise on cardiopulmonary endurance levels in smoker university students; A randomized controlled trial. https://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=49966 [Access: November 12, 2022].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Zafar I, Masood R, Akram MJ, Baig SO, Tariq I, Ahmad N. Comparison of aerobic & Tai Chi exercise on cardiopulmonary endurance levels in smoker university students; A randomized controlled trial. RMJ. 2022; 47(4): 974-977.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Zafar I, Masood R, Akram MJ, Baig SO, Tariq I, Ahmad N. Comparison of aerobic & Tai Chi exercise on cardiopulmonary endurance levels in smoker university students; A randomized controlled trial. RMJ. (2022), [cited November 12, 2022]; 47(4): 974-977.



Harvard Style

Zafar, I., Masood, . R., Akram, . M. J., Baig, . S. O., Tariq, I. & Ahmad, . N. (2022) Comparison of aerobic & Tai Chi exercise on cardiopulmonary endurance levels in smoker university students; A randomized controlled trial. RMJ, 47 (4), 974-977.



Turabian Style

Zafar, Ibrahim, Ramsha Masood, Muhammad Junaid Akram, Sumaiyah Obaid Baig, Iqbal Tariq, and Naveed Ahmad. 2022. Comparison of aerobic & Tai Chi exercise on cardiopulmonary endurance levels in smoker university students; A randomized controlled trial. Rawal Medical Journal, 47 (4), 974-977.



Chicago Style

Zafar, Ibrahim, Ramsha Masood, Muhammad Junaid Akram, Sumaiyah Obaid Baig, Iqbal Tariq, and Naveed Ahmad. "Comparison of aerobic & Tai Chi exercise on cardiopulmonary endurance levels in smoker university students; A randomized controlled trial." Rawal Medical Journal 47 (2022), 974-977.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Zafar, Ibrahim, Ramsha Masood, Muhammad Junaid Akram, Sumaiyah Obaid Baig, Iqbal Tariq, and Naveed Ahmad. "Comparison of aerobic & Tai Chi exercise on cardiopulmonary endurance levels in smoker university students; A randomized controlled trial." Rawal Medical Journal 47.4 (2022), 974-977. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Zafar, I., Masood, . R., Akram, . M. J., Baig, . S. O., Tariq, I. & Ahmad, . N. (2022) Comparison of aerobic & Tai Chi exercise on cardiopulmonary endurance levels in smoker university students; A randomized controlled trial. Rawal Medical Journal, 47 (4), 974-977.








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