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Original Research 
RMJ. 2022; 47(3): 573-576


Optimism pessimism and the risk for coronary heart disease

Bushra Yasmeen, Muhammad Zohaib Khan, Nermeen Jamshaid.

Abstract
Objective: To determine whether optimism and pessimism work as protective variables for cardiovascular disease among males and females.
Methodology: In this cross-sectional survey, using simple random sampling method, data were collected from 165 male and females from the age group of 25-75 years. Revised Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R) was used to determine the association between dispositional optimism/pessimism and the incidence of coronary heart disease.
Results: High proportion of females (36-45 years) and males (56-65 years) were hypertensive and smokers. Majority of males (66-75 years) and females (46-55years) were diabetic. Smoking and diabetes were found the most significant risk factors of coronary heart disease. Those who developed coronary heart disease admitted more than one time were more pessimistic than those who were admitted first time. Logistic regression results indicated that intermediate and high risk categories for coronary heart disease were found in the pessimistic females as compared to the optimistic females. Among males in the highest quartile of pessimism, the risk for coronary heart disease was approximately two-fold (AOR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.19–3.69) as compared to the lowest quartile.
Conclusion: Optimism did not seem to have any role in the risk for developing coronary heart disease. Optimism did not seem to have any connection with the risk of coronary heart disease induced mortality. Pessimism was associated independently statistically significantly with the coronary heart disease.

Key words: Pessimism, optimism, coronary heart disease, mortality.


 
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Pubmed Style

Yasmeen B, Khan MZ, Jamshaid N. Optimism pessimism and the risk for coronary heart disease. RMJ. 2022; 47(3): 573-576.


Web Style

Yasmeen B, Khan MZ, Jamshaid N. Optimism pessimism and the risk for coronary heart disease. https://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=133825 [Access: September 02, 2022].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Yasmeen B, Khan MZ, Jamshaid N. Optimism pessimism and the risk for coronary heart disease. RMJ. 2022; 47(3): 573-576.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Yasmeen B, Khan MZ, Jamshaid N. Optimism pessimism and the risk for coronary heart disease. RMJ. (2022), [cited September 02, 2022]; 47(3): 573-576.



Harvard Style

Yasmeen, B., Khan, . M. Z. & Jamshaid, . N. (2022) Optimism pessimism and the risk for coronary heart disease. RMJ, 47 (3), 573-576.



Turabian Style

Yasmeen, Bushra, Muhammad Zohaib Khan, and Nermeen Jamshaid. 2022. Optimism pessimism and the risk for coronary heart disease. Rawal Medical Journal, 47 (3), 573-576.



Chicago Style

Yasmeen, Bushra, Muhammad Zohaib Khan, and Nermeen Jamshaid. "Optimism pessimism and the risk for coronary heart disease." Rawal Medical Journal 47 (2022), 573-576.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Yasmeen, Bushra, Muhammad Zohaib Khan, and Nermeen Jamshaid. "Optimism pessimism and the risk for coronary heart disease." Rawal Medical Journal 47.3 (2022), 573-576. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Yasmeen, B., Khan, . M. Z. & Jamshaid, . N. (2022) Optimism pessimism and the risk for coronary heart disease. Rawal Medical Journal, 47 (3), 573-576.








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