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Original Research 
RMJ. 2022; 47(4): 986-987


Level of shoulder instability among adult female competitive swimmers

Noor Javaid, Adnan Hashim.

Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the level of shoulder instability among adult male competitive swimmers using Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) scale.
Methodology: The cross-sectional study included 55 subjects (all females). The sample size was calculated with a WHO calculator. The level of shoulder instability was examined by WOSI Questionnaire.
Results: Out of 55 subjects, 22 fell under the age of 24-29 years. We found that 16 swimmers had mild shoulder instability, 27 had moderate instability and 12 had severe instability. The level of shoulder instability was determined from mild to moderate measured with the WOSI scale.
Conclusion: This study concluded that there was a moderate level of shoulder instability among young competitive swimmers.

Key words: Swimmers shoulder, shoulder instability, WOSI questionnaire.


 
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Pubmed Style

Javaid N, Hashim A. Level of shoulder instability among adult female competitive swimmers. RMJ. 2022; 47(4): 986-987.


Web Style

Javaid N, Hashim A. Level of shoulder instability among adult female competitive swimmers. https://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=127196 [Access: November 12, 2022].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Javaid N, Hashim A. Level of shoulder instability among adult female competitive swimmers. RMJ. 2022; 47(4): 986-987.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Javaid N, Hashim A. Level of shoulder instability among adult female competitive swimmers. RMJ. (2022), [cited November 12, 2022]; 47(4): 986-987.



Harvard Style

Javaid, N. & Hashim, . A. (2022) Level of shoulder instability among adult female competitive swimmers. RMJ, 47 (4), 986-987.



Turabian Style

Javaid, Noor, and Adnan Hashim. 2022. Level of shoulder instability among adult female competitive swimmers. Rawal Medical Journal, 47 (4), 986-987.



Chicago Style

Javaid, Noor, and Adnan Hashim. "Level of shoulder instability among adult female competitive swimmers." Rawal Medical Journal 47 (2022), 986-987.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Javaid, Noor, and Adnan Hashim. "Level of shoulder instability among adult female competitive swimmers." Rawal Medical Journal 47.4 (2022), 986-987. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Javaid, N. & Hashim, . A. (2022) Level of shoulder instability among adult female competitive swimmers. Rawal Medical Journal, 47 (4), 986-987.








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