Service by

Home Journal Issues Instructions for Authors Editorial Board About Journal Aims & Scope


Original Research 
RMJ. 2018; 43(3): 429-435


Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13

Abdul Ghaffar, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, Nasser Mohiuddin.

Abstract
Objective: To identify determinants of frequency of antenatal care (ANC) visits in pregnant women in Pakistan.
Methodology: This analysis included 7443 women from PDHS 2013. Linear mixed model was applied in multivariable analysis, accounting for sample weights and HH clustering in the data.
Results: With reference to Punjab province, pregnant women from Sindh province [Coefficient (β)= 1.357; Confidence Interval 95%(CI) 1.00,1.71] and from capital city Islamabad (β=1.433; 95%CI 1.01,1.86) had more ANC visits and Balochistan province (β=-0.746; 95% CI -1.05,-0.44) had fewer visits. With reference to urban, mothers living in rural (β=-0.882; 95 % CI -0.73,-0.12) areas had fewer ANC visits. Pregnant women with increasing number of children five years old and under had (β=-0.116; 95 % CI -0.16,0.85) fewer ANC visits. Women with higher education (β=1.287; 95 % CI 0.71,1.86) had more ANC visits in comparison with any other level of education. Pregnant women in the richest (β=2.338; 95 % CI 1.90,2.78) wealth index quintiles had more ANC visits. Women watching television daily (β=0.456; 95 % CI 0.23,0.69) and listening to radio once a week or daily (β=0.584; 95 % CI 0.07,0.10) also had more ANC visits.
Conclusion: Women from rural areas and having more children had fewer visits. Increasing wealth, education and exposure to TV raised frequency of ANC visits.

Key words: Antenatal care visits, determinants, pregnancy, women, Pakistan, low middle income


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Export to
Export to
Related Records
 Articles by Abdul Ghaffar
Articles by Sathirakorn Pongpanich
Articles by Nasser Mohiuddin
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 46
Downloaded: 18
Cited: 0


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Ghaffar A, Pongpanich S, Mohiuddin N. Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13. RMJ. 2018; 43(3): 429-435.


Web Style

Ghaffar A, Pongpanich S, Mohiuddin N. Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13. http://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=282966 [Access: September 22, 2018].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Ghaffar A, Pongpanich S, Mohiuddin N. Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13. RMJ. 2018; 43(3): 429-435.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Ghaffar A, Pongpanich S, Mohiuddin N. Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13. RMJ. (2018), [cited September 22, 2018]; 43(3): 429-435.



Harvard Style

Ghaffar, A., Pongpanich, S. & Mohiuddin, N. (2018) Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13. RMJ, 43 (3), 429-435.



Turabian Style

Ghaffar, Abdul, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, and Nasser Mohiuddin. 2018. Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13. Rawal Medical Journal, 43 (3), 429-435.



Chicago Style

Ghaffar, Abdul, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, and Nasser Mohiuddin. "Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13." Rawal Medical Journal 43 (2018), 429-435.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Ghaffar, Abdul, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, and Nasser Mohiuddin. "Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13." Rawal Medical Journal 43.3 (2018), 429-435. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Ghaffar, A., Pongpanich, S. & Mohiuddin, N. (2018) Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13. Rawal Medical Journal, 43 (3), 429-435.




Instructions for Authors

AUTHOR LOGIN

REVIEWER LOGIN

Indexed In

WHO Index Medicus IMEMR,
Emromedex,
Pakmedinet,
ExtraMED and
Scopus

Approved by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan and Pakistan Medical and Dental Council



The articles in Rawal Medical Journal are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.