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Original Research 
RMJ. 2018; 43(3): 429-435


Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13

Abdul Ghaffar, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, Nasser Mohiuddin.

Abstract
Objective: To identify determinants of frequency of antenatal care (ANC) visits in pregnant women in Pakistan.
Methodology: This analysis included 7443 women from PDHS 2013. Linear mixed model was applied in multivariable analysis, accounting for sample weights and HH clustering in the data.
Results: With reference to Punjab province, pregnant women from Sindh province [Coefficient (β)= 1.357; Confidence Interval 95%(CI) 1.00,1.71] and from capital city Islamabad (β=1.433; 95%CI 1.01,1.86) had more ANC visits and Balochistan province (β=-0.746; 95% CI -1.05,-0.44) had fewer visits. With reference to urban, mothers living in rural (β=-0.882; 95 % CI -0.73,-0.12) areas had fewer ANC visits. Pregnant women with increasing number of children five years old and under had (β=-0.116; 95 % CI -0.16,0.85) fewer ANC visits. Women with higher education (β=1.287; 95 % CI 0.71,1.86) had more ANC visits in comparison with any other level of education. Pregnant women in the richest (β=2.338; 95 % CI 1.90,2.78) wealth index quintiles had more ANC visits. Women watching television daily (β=0.456; 95 % CI 0.23,0.69) and listening to radio once a week or daily (β=0.584; 95 % CI 0.07,0.10) also had more ANC visits.
Conclusion: Women from rural areas and having more children had fewer visits. Increasing wealth, education and exposure to TV raised frequency of ANC visits.

Key words: Antenatal care visits, determinants, pregnancy, women, Pakistan, low middle income


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Abdul Ghaffar, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, Nasser Mohiuddin. Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13. RMJ. 2018; 43(3): 429-435.


Web Style

Abdul Ghaffar, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, Nasser Mohiuddin. Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13. http://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=282966 [Access: March 20, 2019].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Abdul Ghaffar, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, Nasser Mohiuddin. Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13. RMJ. 2018; 43(3): 429-435.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Abdul Ghaffar, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, Nasser Mohiuddin. Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13. RMJ. (2018), [cited March 20, 2019]; 43(3): 429-435.



Harvard Style

Abdul Ghaffar, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, Nasser Mohiuddin (2018) Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13. RMJ, 43 (3), 429-435.



Turabian Style

Abdul Ghaffar, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, Nasser Mohiuddin. 2018. Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13. Rawal Medical Journal, 43 (3), 429-435.



Chicago Style

Abdul Ghaffar, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, Nasser Mohiuddin. "Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13." Rawal Medical Journal 43 (2018), 429-435.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Abdul Ghaffar, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, Nasser Mohiuddin. "Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13." Rawal Medical Journal 43.3 (2018), 429-435. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Abdul Ghaffar, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, Nasser Mohiuddin (2018) Determinants of frequency of antenatal care visits among Pakistani pregnant women: An analysis of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13. Rawal Medical Journal, 43 (3), 429-435.








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