Open Access and Peer-reviewed
Home Journal Issues Guide for Authors Editorial Board Aims & Scope About Journal News & Announcements


Original Research 
RMJ. 2020; 45(1): 172-175


Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Pakistan: an examination of the 2012-2013 Demographic and Health Survey

Nazia Malik, Farhana Nohsheen, Anam Afzal.

Abstract
Objective: To identify the determinants factors of exclusive breast feeding (EBF) in Pakistan.
Methodology: The analysis included 451 children using the data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Multilevel logistic regression was used to highlight the determinants factors of EBF for infant under six months.
Results: During pregnancy, ≥4 antenatal visits had significant effect on EBF. Mothers living in Balochistan significantly influenced infant EBF and de facto place of residence in large cities had significant effect on EBF. Women in age group 20-34 effected EBF; likewise poorer and richest wealth index was associated with EBF.
Conclusion: Pakistan is inextricably linked with EBF determinants. There is need for intervention for national EBF in all level (individual, household and community) to target health improvement in children. Health care providers and policymakers should increase nutritional counselling in mothers or caregivers.

Key words: Exclusive breastfeeding, determinants, infant.


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Nazia Malik
Articles by Farhana Nohsheen
Articles by Anam Afzal
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 1600
Downloaded: 13


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Malik N, Nohsheen F, Afzal A. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Pakistan: an examination of the 2012-2013 Demographic and Health Survey. RMJ. 2020; 45(1): 172-175.


Web Style

Malik N, Nohsheen F, Afzal A. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Pakistan: an examination of the 2012-2013 Demographic and Health Survey. http://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=14597 [Access: March 29, 2020].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Malik N, Nohsheen F, Afzal A. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Pakistan: an examination of the 2012-2013 Demographic and Health Survey. RMJ. 2020; 45(1): 172-175.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Malik N, Nohsheen F, Afzal A. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Pakistan: an examination of the 2012-2013 Demographic and Health Survey. RMJ. (2020), [cited March 29, 2020]; 45(1): 172-175.



Harvard Style

Malik, N., Nohsheen, . F. & Afzal, . A. (2020) Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Pakistan: an examination of the 2012-2013 Demographic and Health Survey. RMJ, 45 (1), 172-175.



Turabian Style

Malik, Nazia, Farhana Nohsheen, and Anam Afzal. 2020. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Pakistan: an examination of the 2012-2013 Demographic and Health Survey. Rawal Medical Journal, 45 (1), 172-175.



Chicago Style

Malik, Nazia, Farhana Nohsheen, and Anam Afzal. "Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Pakistan: an examination of the 2012-2013 Demographic and Health Survey." Rawal Medical Journal 45 (2020), 172-175.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Malik, Nazia, Farhana Nohsheen, and Anam Afzal. "Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Pakistan: an examination of the 2012-2013 Demographic and Health Survey." Rawal Medical Journal 45.1 (2020), 172-175. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Malik, N., Nohsheen, . F. & Afzal, . A. (2020) Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Pakistan: an examination of the 2012-2013 Demographic and Health Survey. Rawal Medical Journal, 45 (1), 172-175.








AUTHOR LOGIN

REVIEWER LOGIN

Indexed
&
Abstracted


Indexed in WHO Index Medicus IMEMR, Emromedex, Pakmedinet, ExtraMED and Scopus

  Approved by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan and Pakistan Medical and Dental Council


ABOUT JOURNAL
POLICIES
STATEMENTS

This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.

The articles in Rawal Medical Journal are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.