Open Access and Peer-reviewed
Home Journal Issues Guide for Authors Editorial Board Aims & Scope About Journal News & Announcements


Original Research 
RMJ. 2020; 45(2): 261-264


Effect of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscle Training to reduce Hypertension among Stage I and II Hypertensive Patients

Tahir Ramzan, Muhammad Iqbal Tariq, Maria Razzaq, Madeeha Shafiq, Zara Khalid, Imran Amjad, Sumaiyah Obaid.

Abstract
Objective: To determine the effect of inspiratory and expiratory muscle training on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among hypertensive subjects.
Methodology: This randomized control trial included 66 patients with stage I & II hypertension enrolled through convenient sampling technique. It took six months to complete the study at Pakistan Railway Hospital, Rawalpindi. Random allotment of the subjects was done through envelope method into two groups (n= 33 each); inspiratory muscle training group (Group B) and expiratory muscle training group (Group A). Group A received forced inspiration training with relaxed expiration and Group B received forced expiration training with relaxed inspiration (approx. 16 breaths/min X15 minutes X2 times/day for 2 weeks). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and estimated peak VO2 were measured. The data was analyzed at baseline and after two weeks of the treatment with SPSS version 21.
Results: We had 42 males and 24 females with mean age of 46.83+8.68 years. After two weeks of interventions there was significant reduction (P=0.03) in heart rate from 77.49+6.74 to 70.79+6.04 in Group B. Systolic blood pressure was also significantly decreased in Group B (P=0.002) from 143.33+6.0 to 139.36+5.54. In aspect of pulmonary functions, there was significant improvement in FEV1 (P=0.02), FVC (P=0.02), FEV1/FVC (P=0.03), and PEF (P=0.02), in Group A. Estimated peak VO2 was improved in Group A but statistically not significant (P=0.06).
Conclusion: Inspiratory muscles training in hypertensive subjects was effective in reducing blood pressure and heart rate as compared to expiratory muscle training.

Key words: Breathing Exercises, Hypertension, Inspiratory Muscle Training.


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Tahir Ramzan
Articles by Muhammad Iqbal Tariq
Articles by Maria Razzaq
Articles by Madeeha Shafiq
Articles by Zara Khalid
Articles by Imran Amjad
Articles by Sumaiyah Obaid
on Google
on Google Scholar


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Ramzan T, Tariq MI, Razzaq M, Shafiq M, Khalid Z, Amjad I, Obaid S. Effect of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscle Training to reduce Hypertension among Stage I and II Hypertensive Patients. RMJ. 2020; 45(2): 261-264.


Web Style

Ramzan T, Tariq MI, Razzaq M, Shafiq M, Khalid Z, Amjad I, Obaid S. Effect of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscle Training to reduce Hypertension among Stage I and II Hypertensive Patients. http://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=9957 [Access: May 09, 2020].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Ramzan T, Tariq MI, Razzaq M, Shafiq M, Khalid Z, Amjad I, Obaid S. Effect of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscle Training to reduce Hypertension among Stage I and II Hypertensive Patients. RMJ. 2020; 45(2): 261-264.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Ramzan T, Tariq MI, Razzaq M, Shafiq M, Khalid Z, Amjad I, Obaid S. Effect of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscle Training to reduce Hypertension among Stage I and II Hypertensive Patients. RMJ. (2020), [cited May 09, 2020]; 45(2): 261-264.



Harvard Style

Ramzan, T., Tariq, . M. I., Razzaq, . M., Shafiq, . M., Khalid, . Z., Amjad, . I. & Obaid, . S. (2020) Effect of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscle Training to reduce Hypertension among Stage I and II Hypertensive Patients. RMJ, 45 (2), 261-264.



Turabian Style

Ramzan, Tahir, Muhammad Iqbal Tariq, Maria Razzaq, Madeeha Shafiq, Zara Khalid, Imran Amjad, and Sumaiyah Obaid. 2020. Effect of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscle Training to reduce Hypertension among Stage I and II Hypertensive Patients. Rawal Medical Journal, 45 (2), 261-264.



Chicago Style

Ramzan, Tahir, Muhammad Iqbal Tariq, Maria Razzaq, Madeeha Shafiq, Zara Khalid, Imran Amjad, and Sumaiyah Obaid. "Effect of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscle Training to reduce Hypertension among Stage I and II Hypertensive Patients." Rawal Medical Journal 45 (2020), 261-264.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Ramzan, Tahir, Muhammad Iqbal Tariq, Maria Razzaq, Madeeha Shafiq, Zara Khalid, Imran Amjad, and Sumaiyah Obaid. "Effect of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscle Training to reduce Hypertension among Stage I and II Hypertensive Patients." Rawal Medical Journal 45.2 (2020), 261-264. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Ramzan, T., Tariq, . M. I., Razzaq, . M., Shafiq, . M., Khalid, . Z., Amjad, . I. & Obaid, . S. (2020) Effect of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscle Training to reduce Hypertension among Stage I and II Hypertensive Patients. Rawal Medical Journal, 45 (2), 261-264.








AUTHOR LOGIN

REVIEWER LOGIN

Indexed
&
Abstracted


Indexed in WHO Index Medicus IMEMR, Emromedex, Pakmedinet, ExtraMED and Scopus, Web of Science

  Approved by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan and Pakistan Medical and Dental Council


ABOUT JOURNAL
POLICIES
STATEMENTS

This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.

The articles in Rawal Medical Journal are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.