Abnormalities of semen and incidence of azoospermia in Sukkur Region
Badaruddin A. Memon, Khalid Bhatti.
To evaluate various abnormalities of semen and assess azoospermia in Sukkur region of Sindh.
Five hundred seven semen samples were analyzed. They were either advised by their clinicians, consultants or out of their self-awareness of semen analysis. Individuals using the facilities available in laboratory for this purpose opted either for masturbation or intercourse. These fresh samples were kept at 370C for ˝ an hour for liquefaction. Semen samples were examined within 1 hour.
Out of 507 samples, these were age groups: 15-24, n=85, 25-34, n=302, 35-44,n=101, 45-54,n=15, and 55-onwards,(n=4. Various abnormal shapes of spermatozoa were observed and small round headed with short tailed (29%), small-round headed with long tailed (16.56%) and small round headed with short and long tailed spermatozoa (37.28%) were recorded . Predominant abnormal forms of spermatozoa were of small round headed with short and long tailed (n=122) were observed. The total percentage of azoospermia was 17% and major age group affected was (25-34) followed by age group (35-44) and (15-24).
It was concluded that 17% of individuals tested were affected by azoospermia. Efforts are to be focused on the determination of the factors causing variations in sperm cells, low count and azoospermia in developing countries. (Rawal Med J 2010;35: ).
Semen analysis, spermatozoa, azoospermia.
The seminal fluid or semen, a white or grey liquid, is a suspension of spermatozoa in seminal plasma, which is a mixture of secretions from the prostate, seminal vesicles, epidydimis, urethral glands, Cowperâ€™s glands, and vasa deferentia.1, 2 Usually, each milliliter of semen contains millions of spermatozoa (sperm), but the majority of volume consists of secretions of the glands in the male reproductive organs.3 Spermatozoa use fructose anaerobically to produce the ATP necessary for (swimming) motion. Semen clots almost immediately after ejaculation, forming a sticky, jelly-like liquid. It will liquefy again in 5 to 40 minutes.4 In Pakistan the prevalence of infertility is 21.9%. This comprises about 3.9% as primary infertility and 18.0% as secondary infertility.5
The head of normal sperm is oval head shaped, an intact central or â€śmidâ€ť section and an uncoiled, single tail.6 Cytoplasmic droplets along the tail may indicate an immature sperm.7 While the prevalence of azoospermia leading to sperm count and abnormalities in spermatozoa has been reported worldwide, no data exists from Sucker region. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sperm abnormalities in various individuals of Sukkur region ans assess the incidence of azoospermia.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
The study was conducted at the Safeway Diagnostic and Research Laboratory, Sukkur from 2002-2004. The individuals were either advised by doctors or were self referrals. The standard procedures of collection, transport,
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Approved by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan and Pakistan Medical and Dental Council
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