ISSN 0303-5212

RMJ is a general Medicine publication and accepts oorigial articles, editorials, case reports and commentaries. It aims to dessiminate medical knowldge to professional community.

 Aim and objectives of Rawal medical journal



To promote the science and art of medicine and the betterment of the public health.



1.         To publish original, important, well-documented, peer-reviewed clinical and laboratory articles on a diverse range of medical topics

2.         To provide physicians with continuing education in basic and clinical science to support informed clinical decisions.

3.         To enable physicians to remain informed in multiple areas of medicine, including developments infields other than their own.

4.         To improve public health internationally by elevating the quality of medical care, disease prevention, and research provided by an informed readership.

5.         To foster responsible and balanced debate on controversial issues that affect medicine and health care.

6.         To forecast important issues and trends in medicine and health care.

7.         To inform readers about non-clinical aspects of medicine and public health, including the political, philosophic, ethical, legal, environmental, economic, historical and cultural.

8.         To recognize that, in addition to these specific objectives, THE JOURNAL has a social responsibility to improve the total human condition and to promote the integrity of science.

9.         To report American Medical Association policy, as appropriate, while maintaining editorial independence, objectivity and responsibility.

10.       To achieve the highest level of ethical medical journalism and to produce a publication that is timely, credible, and enjoyable to read.


2024, Vol: 49, Issue: 2

RMJ. Year: 2024, Volume: 49

  1. Triple assessment and core needle biopsy for early detection of breast cancer
    Shahid Jamal
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 225-226
    » Abstract » PDF

  2. Original Research
  3. Knowledge of women regarding risk factors, signs and symptoms and breast cancer screening
    Sithara Begum. K, Aruna Jothishanmugam, Nagla Abdalghani, Diviya Raju
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 227-231
    » Abstract » PDF

  4. Original Research
  5. Knowledge, attitude and awareness of breast cancer among non-medical female undergraduate students in Karachi, Pakistan
    Salman Ashfaq Ahmed, Azfar Athar Ishaqui, Zeeshan Ahmed, Lailoona Jawed, Javeria Farooq, Muhammad Imran
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 232-237
    » Abstract » PDF

  6. Original Research
  7. Breast cancer knowledge and attitude among Jazan Women, Saudi Arabia
    Hawa Ibrahim Hamid, Aruna Jothi shanmugam, Fatma Abdalla Abdalla, Amani Abdelgader Abdelgader, Omnia Abdalla Higazy, Sara Awad Elkareem Elhassan
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 238-241
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20231230081032

  8. Original Research
  9. A cross sectional study of drug utilization pattern in pregnancy among patients in public and private sector hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan
    Ayesha Mustafa, Jamshaid Akbar, Abu Bakar Munir, Zunaira Akbar, Sonia Tariq, Ali Hassan Gillani
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 242-245
    » Abstract » PDF

  10. Original Research
  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in ventilator associated pneumonia in critical care unit – Karachi, Pakistan
    Suresh Kumar, Sidra Rauf, Hamid Ali Kalwar, Faiza Ahmed, Surander Kumar, Manzoor Hussain
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 246-249
    » Abstract » PDF

  12. Original Research
  13. Knowledge of ICU nurses toward prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia at public hospitals in Najran, Saudi Arabia
    Elsadig E. Abdulrahman, Sadeq A. Alwesabi, Hammad Ali Fadlalmola, Sameer A. Alkubat, Samah R. Elrefaey
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 250-254
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20240102064750

  14. Original Research
  15. Frequency of extended spectrum β lactamases producers in Gram-negative bacilli pathogens
    Shah Muhammad Abassi, Shaista Bano, Sarfraz Ali Tunio, Babar Aijaz Memon, Imran Ali Korejo
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 255-258
    » Abstract » PDF

  16. Original Research
  17. A retrospective analysis of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio and lymphopenia as an indicator for disease severity in COVID-19; An audit from a tertiary care set up
    Shaheen Kouser, Farah Fatima Abbas, Moazzam Tauheed, Waqas Ahmed Farooqui, Muhammad Sohaib Touheed, Ramsha Khan
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 259-262
    » Abstract » PDF

  18. Original Research
  19. Anemia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder in undergraduate university students in COVID-19 OMICRON variant era
    Noman Sadiq, Zulfiqar Ali Laghari, Hammad Raziq, Nimra Masood Baig, Ayaz Ali Samo, Autif Hussain mangi
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 263-266
    » Abstract » PDF

  20. Original Research
  21. Assessing the value of early detection of coagulopathies in corona virus disease 19 patients in Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
    Shaheen Kouser, Saba Kamil, Ramsha Khan, Sara Rashid, Farah Fatima Abbass, Nehad Khan
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 267-269
    » Abstract » PDF

  22. Original Research
  23. Prevalence of covid-19 breakthrough after vaccination and adverse effects of vaccines
    Fatima Ehsan, Fouzia Hanif, Qudsia Ishaq, Maleha Asim, Maria Yousaf, Aqeel Mansoor
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 270-273
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230927025010

  24. Original Research
  25. Behaviors of students of a public sector Medical University regarding Covid-19
    Sadaf Razzak, Seerat Fatima, Noor Fatima, Zunaira Rizwan, Tahreem Ibrar, Faiza Zeeshan
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 274-277
    » Abstract » PDF

  26. Original Research
  27. Association between dietary habits and hemoglobin levels of anemic young women: A cytometric and erythrokinetic analysis of anemia biomarkers
    Arisha Sohail, Muhammad Bilal Azmi, Shamim Akhtar Qureshi
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 278-281
    » Abstract » PDF

  28. Original Research
  29. Correlation of Charlson’s Comorbidity Index with the length of stay and development of complications during hospital admission in the patients of heart failure
    Shahzad Khan Siddique, Tehzeeb Zehra, Mariam Tariq, Sehrish Latif, Rahila Aamir, Sana Manzoor
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 282-285
    » Abstract » PDF

  30. Original Research
  31. Assessing the impact of self-care telemonitoring on readmission rates of patients with heart failure in Indonesia
    Aisiyah Lubis, Mula Tarigan, Yuke Sarastri
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 286-289
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20240220031506

  32. Original Research
  33. Frequency of male hypogonadism in patients with diabetic coronary artery disease
    Syed Zakir Shah, Aimal Khan, Sana Rehman Joya, Hamayun Mumtaz, Nasim Ilyas, Shakila Bangash
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 290-292
    » Abstract » PDF

  34. Original Research
  35. Gender based comparison of pulmonary functions after stress induction in healthy adults
    Syed Shahmeer Raza, Umema Zafar, Dur E Shehwar Ali, Hamna Zafar, Jazza Jamil, Farhan Ullah
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 293-297
    » Abstract » PDF

  36. Original Research
  37. Investigation of Vitamin D levels in major depressive disorder
    Ather Muneer, Nargis Munir, Nadia Shams, Usman Ghani, Mirza Inam, Neelam Ayub
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 298-301
    » Abstract » PDF

  38. Original Research
  39. Prognosis of Non-small cell lung cancer in relation to the smoking status in a tertiary care Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
    Nehad Khan, Muhammad Furqan Bari, Asma Shabbir, Farah Fatima Abbas, Waqas Ahmed Farooqui, Abdul Razzaque
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 302-305
    » Abstract » PDF

  40. Original Research
  41. Reasons for lack of awareness regarding rheumatic heart disease among hospitalized patients at a cardiac tertiary care setting - Who to blame, the patient or the practitioner?
    Faisal Qadir, Shakeela Naz, Naveedullah Khan, Rizwan Ali Khawaja, Parveen Akhtar, Muhammad Tariq Farman
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 306-309
    » Abstract » PDF

  42. Original Research
  43. Skin thickness and internal organ involvement in patients of systemic sclerosis
    Fareheen Ashfaq, Humaira Talat, Faisal Ahmed, Maria Mansoor, Reema MIrza, Erum Ashraf
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 310-313
    » Abstract » PDF

  44. Original Research
  45. Frequency of joint hypermobility using Beighton’s score in patients of fibromyalgia at a tertiary care hospital
    Nauman Ismat Butt, Muhammad Bilal Rasheed, Fahmina Ashfaq, Muhammad Sohail Ajmal Ghoauri, Aniqa Anser, Dur-e-Sabeeh
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 314-317
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230221112559

  46. Original Research
  47. Frequency of iliotibial band tightness among female medical students of Karachi: A cross-sectional study
    Marium Moin, Kanwal Fatima, Urooj Khan, Aftab Ahmed Mirza Baig
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 318-321
    » Abstract » PDF

  48. Original Research
  49. Current practices and preferences for management of plantar fasciitis: A national survey amongst orthopedic surgeons in Pakistan
    Jagdesh Kumar, Badaruddin Sahito, Muhammad Soughat Katto, Muhammad Jamil, Asif Ali Jatoi, Nusrat Rasheed
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 322-325
    » Abstract » PDF

  50. Original Research
  51. Documenting deaths: awareness, knowledge and practice of death certification and registration processes among citizens of Karachi, Pakistan
    Ayesha Muzzammil, Ramlah Naz, Abdul Waheed Chundrigar, Nuzhat Aisha Akram, Mehreen Fatima, Farzana Azam Khan
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 326-329
    » Abstract » PDF

  52. Original Research
  53. Frequency and pattern of self-injurious behavior in children with intellectual disability presenting at a tertiary care hospital, Karachi Pakistan
    Darshana Kumari, Aliya Khan, Muhammad Raza Memon, Muhammad Shaheryar Ali, Muhammad Ayub, Jawed Akbar Dars
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 330-333
    » Abstract » PDF

  54. Original Research
  55. Frequency of back pain in school going children carrying school bags
    Waqar Alam, Faaiz Ali Shah, Muhammad Naeem Shah, Feroz Shah, Liaqat Khan, Yad Zaman
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 334-337
    » Abstract » PDF

  56. Original Research
  57. Pediatric Neuroscience Nursing Research: Knowledge domains and collaboration networks - A bibliometric analysis
    Sitelbanat Osman Mohamed Ahmed
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 338-342
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20231019052107

  58. Original Research
  59. Frequency of Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in jaundiced neonates
    Nathu mal Maheshwari, Adnan Bashir, Siri chand, Arshad Ali, Om Parkash, Bilawal HIngorjo
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 343-346
    » Abstract » PDF

  60. Original Research
  61. Frequency of hypoglycemia in small for gestational age neonates admitted in neonatal intensive care unit
    Anila Farhat, Hamayun Anwar, Hina Imtiaz, Bushra Bashir
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 347-349
    » Abstract » PDF

  62. Original Research
  63. Prevalence and morphological characteristics of anemia in young children in Albaha, Saudi Arabia
    Raed A Alharbi
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 350-354
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20240214052807

  64. Original Research
  65. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of breastfeeding; education about breastfeeding need of hour
    Noor ul Ain Irfan, Afnan Rizwan, Irfan Afzal Mughal, M. Hassaan Farooq, Muneeba Sadaf, Asma Irfan
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 355-358
    » Abstract » PDF

  66. Original Research
  67. Is splint really necessary in nasal surgeries? A prospective randomized analysis
    Amna Enam, Sadaf Zia, Iqbal A.M Khyani, Nida Khan, Iftikhar Arshad, Tariq Zia Siddiqui
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 359-362
    » Abstract » PDF

  68. Original Research
  69. Clinical efficacy of ascorbic acid in wound healing after third molar surgery
    Maryam Fatima, Kulsoom Farhat, Chaudhary Muhammad Usman, Shabana Ali, Mudassar Noor, Mahjabeen Sharif
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 363-366
    » Abstract » PDF

  70. Original Research
  71. Post insertion complaints associated with acrylic partial denture prosthesis in private and public dental institutes of Punjab, Pakistan
    Hammad Hassan, Atiq ur Rehman, Muhammad Afzal, Daniyal Naeem Dar, Ramsha Khalid, Rameen Abrar Rathore
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 367-370
    » Abstract » PDF

  72. Original Research
  73. Reasons for non-compliance of Denis Browne Bracing for the correction of clubfoot deformities
    Muhammad Jamil, Shehzeen Dua, Husna, Jagdesh Kumar, Nusrat Rasheed, Adeel Ahmed Siddiqui
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 371-375
    » Abstract » PDF

  74. Original Research
  75. Dental anomalies in Class 1 Malocclusion and its association with arch discrepancy
    Sanaa Ahmed, Sadaf Talha, Bushra Inayat, Hina Shah, Tayyaba Imam, Sadia Khalil
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 376-378
    » Abstract » PDF

  76. Original Research
  77. Prevalence of depression, anxiety and quality of life of thalassemia patients with and without physical therapy
    Aleena Masood, Aneeqa Ashraf, Hafiz Muhammad Sheraz, Atiqa Sattar, Hamna Zubair, Adnan Hashim
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 379-382
    » Abstract » PDF

  78. Original Research
  79. Association of physical activity with Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Eveningness Chronotypes
    Madeeha Maqsood, Shazia Ali, Suhaib Ahmed, Shagufta Feroz
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 383-386
    » Abstract » PDF

  80. Original Research
  81. Emotional intelligence and empathy among allied eye care workers; A cross-sectional survey
    Muhammad Shaheer, Muhammad Anwar Awan, Asima Rafique, Zahid Kamal Siddiqui, Sidra Anwar, Ummarah Rasheed
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 387-392
    » Abstract » PDF

  82. Original Research
  83. Role of electromedical personnel in ensuring the availability of electromedical device in hospitals
    Liliek Soetjiatie, Lusiana Lusiana, M. Ridha Makruf, Furaida Khasanah, Adi Wasis Prakosa, Bedjo Utomo
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 393-397
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230626015120

  84. Original Research
  85. Early onset colorectal cancer: a wakeup call
    Hina Abdul Qayoom Khan, Khursheed Ahmed Samo, Sana Shahid, Lajpat Rathor, Muhammad Ali Ghufran, Amjad Siraj Memon
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 398-401
    » Abstract » PDF

  86. Original Research
  87. Medication adherence and its association with daily living performance activities and health literacy in diabetic patients
    Mohi Ud Din, Umer Siddique, Tanzila Ishaq, Bushra Ameer Saeed Awan, Muhammad Usman Javed, Muhammad Shehroze Ahmad
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 402-406
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230120041018

  88. Original Research
  89. Pathology teaching methodology - Are students satisfied?
    Menahal, Muhammad Junaid Iqbal, Mushayyad Hussain, Ghulam Raza Faseh Waryam, Irshad Ali, Hira Haider
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 407-410
    » Abstract » PDF

  90. Original Research
  91. Perception of medical students about autopsy and its importance as a teaching and learning method
    Uzma Zaheen Anwar, Muhammad Hassaan, Rifat Hayat Shukeria
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 411-414
    » Abstract » PDF

  92. Original Research
  93. Role of socio-cultural institutions commencing health problems in natural disasters: A study from Malang, Lumajang and Bojonegoro regency of Indonesia
    Septi Ariadi, Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 415-418
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20240125034213

  94. Original Research
  95. Frequency and factors leading to unsafe injection practice among health care providers at District Sanghar, Sindh, Pakistan
    Shair Muhammad Hazara, Nighat Nisar, Shahzad Bashir, Samina Yasmeen
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 419-422
    » Abstract » PDF

  96. Original Research
  97. Trends in sedentary behavior among undergraduate university students of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan
    Laraib Bint Khalil, Hafsa Maryam, Zaib Un Nisa, Zara Khalid, Shoaib Kayani
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 423-426
    » Abstract » PDF

  98. Original Research
  99. Impact of synbiotics on stress-induced alterations in cortisol levels and lipid profile in male Sprague Dawley Rats
    Shazia Ali, Tooba Jamal, Aysha Mushtaq, Shagufta Feroz
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 427-430
    » Abstract » PDF

  100. Original Research
  101. Comparison of isometric and isotonic exercises in osteoarthritis among female patients
    Saleh Shah, Abdullah, Muhammad Naveed Babur, Mazhar Iqbal, Aimen Mumshad, Fiza Jamal
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 431-434
    » Abstract » PDF

  102. Original Research
  103. Quality of life of stroke patients in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan
    Amna Riaz, Faryal Zaidi, Ishaq Ahmed, Sana Amir Amjad, Muhammad Kaleem Aslam, Jannat Bibi
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 435-437
    » Abstract » PDF

  104. Original Research
  105. Relationship of eye hand coordination and sensorimotor impairment with hand dominancy among stroke survivors; A cross sectional study
    Bushra Ali Syed, Misbah Ghous, Tahreem Nisar, Neha Raza, Sania Khawar Kiyani
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 438-441
    » Abstract » PDF

  106. Review Article
  107. Effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions in alleviating symptoms and complications of diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A review of evidence
    Zuhair Jaafer Al Hulaily, Ammar Adnan Al haji, Mehad Ali Al Awad, Tahani Rashid Habeeb, Faizah Jaafer Al Haidar
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 442-445
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20230704065844

  108. Review Article
  109. Global measure of lockdown and isolation during the pandemic considering deontology
    Farah Shaheen, Afifa Ehsan
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 446-449
    » Abstract » PDF

  110. Review Article
  111. Antioxidant effect of vitamin C on asthmatic patients
    Amir A. Bashir, Ahmed Abdalla Jarelnape, Khalid A. Ahmed, Elghazaly A.Elghazaly
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 450-454
    » Abstract » PDF

  112. Review Article
  113. Impact of resistance training in patients with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Khalaf Alotaibi, Hammad Ali Fadlalmola, Huda Hassabelrasool Abedelwahed, Asia Suliman Mohamed Ahmed, Sara Elsadig Ibrahem, Raga Abdelfatah Mohamed, Amani Mukhtar, Somia Jadalla Farg, Ghada Siddig Osman, Amel Eltahir Banaga, Manal Hussien Fatah Alrahman, Insaf Hassan Ahmed, Fathia Hassan Ismail, Nisha Abraham, Nagat Sidig Eltaher, Farida Rahamtalla Shaaeldein
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 455-460
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20231022031107

  114. Case Report
  115. Macular toxicity of vital dye used to delineate macula during pars plana vitrectomy to treat idiopathic macular hole - A case report
    Othman Jarallah Al Jarallah, Mohammed S. Asiri
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 461-463
    » Abstract » PDF» doi: 10.5455/rmj.20240101094058

  116. Technical Note
  117. Front Page
    Rawal Medical Journal
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 1-1
    » Abstract » PDF

  118. Technical Note
  119. Contents
    Rawal Medical Journal
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 2-5
    » Abstract » PDF

  120. Technical Note
  121. Information for Authors
    Rawal Medical Journal
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 464-464
    » Abstract » PDF

  122. Technical Note
  123. Complete Issue
    Rawal Medical Journal
    RMJ. 2024; 49(2): 225-465
    » Abstract » PDF