Open Access and Peer-reviewed
Home Journal Issues Guide for Authors Editorial Board Aims & Scope About Journal News & Announcements


Review Article 
RMJ. 2020; 45(3): 737-746


Update on the resistance pattern of common multidrug resistant pathogens to the common end resort antibiotics

Ali Faraz, Usama B Ghaffar, Syed Yousaf Kazmi, Naser Ashraf Tadvi, Muhammad Asad Farhan, Abdul Irfan.

Abstract
Objective: To review across the globe resistant trends of commonly isolated Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms against four end resort antibiotics e.g. Vancomycin, Linezolid, Carbapenems, and Colistin.
Methodology: Web based Medical literature search was done using keywords. Extensive search was done to retrieve surveillance studies data from PubMed/Medline, WHO databases, Health Surveys, google scholar and grey literature until December 2018.
Results: Resistance pattern to end resort antibiotics is increasing worldwide and is regionally variable. There had been a rapid increase in carbapenem resistance in gram negative organisms across the globe in many countries, with very high rates of >25% in some. Colistin resistance in gram negative bacteria is so far less than 10% worldwide. There is an increasing incidence (approx.7% worldwide) of Vancomycin intermediate resistant in Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and hetero-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA), which may lead to therapeutic failure with Vancomycin. Fully resistant Staphylococci aureus (VRSA) remains low with sporadic reports. Similarly Linezolid resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococci is also generally low<1% with sporadic reports only.
Conclusions: Since empiric therapies in hospitals are based on data regarding resistance pattern, there is a crucial need to determine current resistant rates at a global scale.

Key words: Vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin resistant eneterococci, carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae, linezolid resistant staphylococcus aureus, linezolid resistant enterococci, colistin resistant gram negative bacteria.


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Ali Faraz
Articles by Usama B Ghaffar
Articles by Syed Yousaf Kazmi
Articles by Naser Ashraf Tadvi
Articles by Muhammad Asad Farhan
Articles by Abdul Irfan
on Google
on Google Scholar


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Faraz A, Ghaffar UB, Kazmi SY, Tadvi NA, Farhan MA, Irfan A. Update on the resistance pattern of common multidrug resistant pathogens to the common end resort antibiotics.


Web Style

Faraz A, Ghaffar UB, Kazmi SY, Tadvi NA, Farhan MA, Irfan A. Update on the resistance pattern of common multidrug resistant pathogens to the common end resort antibiotics. http://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=85266 [Access: August 30, 2020].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Faraz A, Ghaffar UB, Kazmi SY, Tadvi NA, Farhan MA, Irfan A. Update on the resistance pattern of common multidrug resistant pathogens to the common end resort antibiotics.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Faraz A, Ghaffar UB, Kazmi SY, Tadvi NA, Farhan MA, Irfan A. Update on the resistance pattern of common multidrug resistant pathogens to the common end resort antibiotics.



Harvard Style

Faraz, A., Ghaffar, . U. B., Kazmi, . S. Y., Tadvi, . N. A., Farhan, . M. A. & Irfan, . A. (2020) Update on the resistance pattern of common multidrug resistant pathogens to the common end resort antibiotics.



Turabian Style

Faraz, Ali, Usama B Ghaffar, Syed Yousaf Kazmi, Naser Ashraf Tadvi, Muhammad Asad Farhan, and Abdul Irfan. 2020. Update on the resistance pattern of common multidrug resistant pathogens to the common end resort antibiotics.



Chicago Style

Faraz, Ali, Usama B Ghaffar, Syed Yousaf Kazmi, Naser Ashraf Tadvi, Muhammad Asad Farhan, and Abdul Irfan. "Update on the resistance pattern of common multidrug resistant pathogens to the common end resort antibiotics."



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Faraz, Ali, Usama B Ghaffar, Syed Yousaf Kazmi, Naser Ashraf Tadvi, Muhammad Asad Farhan, and Abdul Irfan. "Update on the resistance pattern of common multidrug resistant pathogens to the common end resort antibiotics."



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Faraz, A., Ghaffar, . U. B., Kazmi, . S. Y., Tadvi, . N. A., Farhan, . M. A. & Irfan, . A. (2020) Update on the resistance pattern of common multidrug resistant pathogens to the common end resort antibiotics.








AUTHOR LOGIN

REVIEWER LOGIN

Indexed
&
Abstracted


Indexed in WHO Index Medicus IMEMR, Emromedex, Pakmedinet, ExtraMED,  Scopus and Web of Science

                     Approved by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan 


ABOUT JOURNAL
POLICIES
STATEMENTS

This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.

The articles in Rawal Medical Journal are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.