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Original Research 
RMJ. 2020; 45(2): 434-438


Prevalence of antenatal depression and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Karachi, Pakistan

Shahina Ishtiaque, Shazia Sultana, Urooj Malik, Uzair Yaqoob, Sheeba Hussain.

Abstract
Objective: To highlight the incidence of undiagnosed depression and evaluate its severity among pregnant Pakistani women and identify its risk factors.
Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi from January 1, to July 31, 2016. All women attending the antenatal clinics for routine follow-up visits were included. Women who were already diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) were excluded. All completed the standardized Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) for the screening of depression.
Results: Out of 1000 respondents, BMI was overweight for 40.4% of women and obese for 20.5%. There were 59.8% primigravida, 32.6% multigravida, 6.4% grand multigravida, and 1.2% great grand multigravida. In 24.8%, this pregnancy was unplanned. On PHQ-9, 411 had no to minimal depressive symptoms, 332 mild, 214 moderate and 43 had severe MDD. In primigravida, 32.9% had mild depression, in multigravida, 37.1% had mild and 37.7% had moderate depression, in grand multigravida, 31.3% reported severe depression, and in great grand multigravida, 66.7% had severe depression. An increased risk of depression was found in women with a family history of psychiatric illnesses, in those with an unplanned pregnancy, and in those with the previous history of stillbirth and miscarriages. Majority of women <21 years of age were mildly depressed and some >40 years were severely depressed.
Conclusion: The prevalence of depression among pregnant women is high and is usually mild. Risk factors were extremes of age, higher gravida, previous history of miscarriage and stillbirth, and unplanned pregnancy.

Key words: Antenatal depression, depression, risk factors, pregnancy.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Ishtiaque S, Sultana S, Malik U, Yaqoob U, Hussain S. Prevalence of antenatal depression and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. RMJ. 2020; 45(2): 434-438.


Web Style

Ishtiaque S, Sultana S, Malik U, Yaqoob U, Hussain S. Prevalence of antenatal depression and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. http://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=71937 [Access: May 09, 2020].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Ishtiaque S, Sultana S, Malik U, Yaqoob U, Hussain S. Prevalence of antenatal depression and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. RMJ. 2020; 45(2): 434-438.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Ishtiaque S, Sultana S, Malik U, Yaqoob U, Hussain S. Prevalence of antenatal depression and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. RMJ. (2020), [cited May 09, 2020]; 45(2): 434-438.



Harvard Style

Ishtiaque, S., Sultana, . S., Malik, . U., Yaqoob, . U. & Hussain, . S. (2020) Prevalence of antenatal depression and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. RMJ, 45 (2), 434-438.



Turabian Style

Ishtiaque, Shahina, Shazia Sultana, Urooj Malik, Uzair Yaqoob, and Sheeba Hussain. 2020. Prevalence of antenatal depression and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. Rawal Medical Journal, 45 (2), 434-438.



Chicago Style

Ishtiaque, Shahina, Shazia Sultana, Urooj Malik, Uzair Yaqoob, and Sheeba Hussain. "Prevalence of antenatal depression and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Karachi, Pakistan." Rawal Medical Journal 45 (2020), 434-438.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Ishtiaque, Shahina, Shazia Sultana, Urooj Malik, Uzair Yaqoob, and Sheeba Hussain. "Prevalence of antenatal depression and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Karachi, Pakistan." Rawal Medical Journal 45.2 (2020), 434-438. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Ishtiaque, S., Sultana, . S., Malik, . U., Yaqoob, . U. & Hussain, . S. (2020) Prevalence of antenatal depression and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. Rawal Medical Journal, 45 (2), 434-438.








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