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Original Research 
RMJ. 2020; 45(2): 327-330


Longitudinal study on seasonal affective disorders in Pakistan

Atia Sharif, Muhammad Naveed Riaz.

Abstract
Objective: To examine the seasonal affective disorders (SAD), seasonality and seasonal symptoms across seasons in Pakistan.
Methodology: Early adults participated in this longitudinal study. Two standardized questionnaires including Seasonality Attitude Questionnaire and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were used for data collection.
Results: There was high level of seasonality in summer as compared to remaining three seasons. High level of anxiety and depression were seen in summer. High level of stress in autumn was observed.
Conclusion: Seasonal Affective Disorder, seasonality and seasonal psychiatric symptoms affect across four seasons in Pakistan.

Key words: Seasonal Affective Disorder, Seasonality, Seasonal Psychiatric Symptoms, Season, Depression, Anxiety, Stress.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Sharif A, Riaz MN. Longitudinal study on seasonal affective disorders in Pakistan. RMJ. 2020; 45(2): 327-330.


Web Style

Sharif A, Riaz MN. Longitudinal study on seasonal affective disorders in Pakistan. http://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=33015 [Access: May 10, 2020].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Sharif A, Riaz MN. Longitudinal study on seasonal affective disorders in Pakistan. RMJ. 2020; 45(2): 327-330.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Sharif A, Riaz MN. Longitudinal study on seasonal affective disorders in Pakistan. RMJ. (2020), [cited May 10, 2020]; 45(2): 327-330.



Harvard Style

Sharif, A. & Riaz, . M. N. (2020) Longitudinal study on seasonal affective disorders in Pakistan. RMJ, 45 (2), 327-330.



Turabian Style

Sharif, Atia, and Muhammad Naveed Riaz. 2020. Longitudinal study on seasonal affective disorders in Pakistan. Rawal Medical Journal, 45 (2), 327-330.



Chicago Style

Sharif, Atia, and Muhammad Naveed Riaz. "Longitudinal study on seasonal affective disorders in Pakistan." Rawal Medical Journal 45 (2020), 327-330.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Sharif, Atia, and Muhammad Naveed Riaz. "Longitudinal study on seasonal affective disorders in Pakistan." Rawal Medical Journal 45.2 (2020), 327-330. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Sharif, A. & Riaz, . M. N. (2020) Longitudinal study on seasonal affective disorders in Pakistan. Rawal Medical Journal, 45 (2), 327-330.








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