Open Access and Peer-reviewed
Home Journal Issues Guide for Authors Editorial Board Aims & Scope About Journal News & Announcements


Original Research 
RMJ. 2018; 43(1): 161-163


Consumption of caffeinated beverages among orthodontic students

Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Ali Hashim, Iqra Pervaiz, Muhammad Imran Khan.

Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the frequency of usage of caffeinated beverages among orthodontic students and its relationship with sleep disturbances.
Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted over 3 months and included 100 orthodontic students. Data was collected utilizing a self-administered questionnaire and then analyzed on SPSS version 21.
Results: Out of 100 students, 20 (20%) were using caffeinated drinks. Out of 20 students, 40% had no difficulty in falling asleep and 60% had difficulty in sleeping. Mean sleep duration per day during week days was 7.18 hours and at weekends was 9.18 hours. Final year was having highest percentage of caffeinated drink consumer i.e. 80%. Among users, 70% of males and 30% of females took caffeinated drinks.
Conclusion: Consumption of caffeinated drinks was low (20%) among orthodontic students. There was no relationship between caffeinated beverages consumption and sleep disturbances.

Key words: Caffeinated drinks, caffeine, dental students.


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Muhammad Azeem
Articles by Muhammad Ali Hashim
Articles by Iqra Pervaiz
Articles by Muhammad Imran Khan
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 618
Downloaded: 144
Cited: 0


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Ali Hashim, Iqra Pervaiz, Muhammad Imran Khan. Consumption of caffeinated beverages among orthodontic students. RMJ. 2018; 43(1): 161-163.


Web Style

Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Ali Hashim, Iqra Pervaiz, Muhammad Imran Khan. Consumption of caffeinated beverages among orthodontic students. http://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=274187 [Access: January 16, 2019].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Ali Hashim, Iqra Pervaiz, Muhammad Imran Khan. Consumption of caffeinated beverages among orthodontic students. RMJ. 2018; 43(1): 161-163.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Ali Hashim, Iqra Pervaiz, Muhammad Imran Khan. Consumption of caffeinated beverages among orthodontic students. RMJ. (2018), [cited January 16, 2019]; 43(1): 161-163.



Harvard Style

Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Ali Hashim, Iqra Pervaiz, Muhammad Imran Khan (2018) Consumption of caffeinated beverages among orthodontic students. RMJ, 43 (1), 161-163.



Turabian Style

Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Ali Hashim, Iqra Pervaiz, Muhammad Imran Khan. 2018. Consumption of caffeinated beverages among orthodontic students. Rawal Medical Journal, 43 (1), 161-163.



Chicago Style

Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Ali Hashim, Iqra Pervaiz, Muhammad Imran Khan. "Consumption of caffeinated beverages among orthodontic students." Rawal Medical Journal 43 (2018), 161-163.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Ali Hashim, Iqra Pervaiz, Muhammad Imran Khan. "Consumption of caffeinated beverages among orthodontic students." Rawal Medical Journal 43.1 (2018), 161-163. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Ali Hashim, Iqra Pervaiz, Muhammad Imran Khan (2018) Consumption of caffeinated beverages among orthodontic students. Rawal Medical Journal, 43 (1), 161-163.








AUTHOR LOGIN

REVIEWER LOGIN

Indexed
&
Abstracted


Indexed in WHO Index Medicus IMEMR, Emromedex, Pakmedinet, ExtraMED and Scopus

  Approved by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan and Pakistan Medical and Dental Council


ABOUT JOURNAL
POLICIES
STATEMENTS

This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.

The articles in Rawal Medical Journal are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.